The Threat of Ebola in Africa

Is Ebola in Africa a Real Threat? Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe and often fatal illness. It is mainly spread through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of an infected person, and by handling objects that have been contaminated with these fluids. The hardest-hit countries in the 2014-2016 EVD outbreak were emerging from years of civil conflict, which weakened their public health systems and caused distrust among communities. This has made it more difficult to control the outbreak. What is Ebola? Ebola is a serious disease caused by a virus from the genus ebolavirus. It causes a deadly hemorrhagic fever with multiple organ failure and shock. The virus is highly contagious. It spreads through close contact with infected people, including healthcare workers. It can also be spread by eating bushmeat and through unsafe burial practices. Pregnant women who have had Ebola can pass the virus to their unborn babies. The illness is most often spread when someone touches body fluids (like blood, sweat, tears, saliva, feces, vomit, breast milk, or semen) from a person who has the disease. People can also become infected by touching sheets, towels, clothes, medical supplies or personal objects that have been touched by a person who has the disease. Health care workers who treat patients with Ebola wear masks, gloves, gowns and special boots. The risk of infection is reduced when these safety measures are followed. A vaccine and antiviral medicines are being developed to prevent and treat the disease. Symptoms of Ebola Ebola virus spreads through unprotected contact with blood or body fluids (like urine, feces, saliva, sweat, vomit, breast milk, and semen) from a sick person or from surfaces or objects (like needles) that have been contaminated with these fluids. People can also get infected by eating raw meat from wild animals that carry ebolaviruses, such as bats, nonhuman primates, and antelope. Symptoms of Ebola include fever, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, and problems with how the body clots. Health care workers are trained to recognize the early signs of this illness and to help patients to avoid complications. Nurses in these communities often speak the local languages and are able to provide factual information about the disease to their peers and community members. They can also support the implementation of public health interventions by helping to track contacts, perform laboratory testing, and safely administer treatments. Patients with Ebola need to stay under observation in a hospital until they are well. Transmission of Ebola The 2014–16 Ebola epidemic in West Africa was the largest outbreak in history. It highlighted that urban settings, densely populated slums and health care facilities are not immune to the spread of this disease, which can be transmitted through close contact with the blood or secretions of an infected person, their dead body or any surfaces or objects contaminated with those fluids. Infections occur when people come into direct contact with the blood or other bodily fluids (like faeces, vomit or saliva) of a sick or dead person or with any objects soiled with those fluids, including gloves and gowns worn by healthcare workers who do not use proper infection prevention and control measures. Health care settings can also play a key role in the initial amplification of an outbreak by transmitting the disease through contact between infected patients and their caregivers if they do not follow proper procedures for isolation and barrier protection. Ebola viruses are classified as a biosafety level 4 pathogen and require special containment and barrier protection for laboratory personnel and those who handle potentially infected patients or their bodies. In addition, the virus can be transmitted to others by exposure through needle-stick injuries. Treatment of Ebola A vaccine against Ebola is in development, and two monoclonal antibody treatments have been approved by the FDA: mAb114 (Ansuvimab; Inmazeb) and REGN-EB3 (Ebanga). They are both mixtures of antibodies that block the virus from entering cells. They were effective in the 2014–2016 outbreak, but have not been tested against other species of ebolavirus. In addition to treatment, patients must receive supportive care such as fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration and help manage vomiting and diarrhea. They may also need blood transfusions or antibiotics for possible infection. Health care workers in affected countries are working hard to contain the outbreaks. They are caring for patients with courage and resilience in challenging health care environments that put them at increased risk of contracting the disease themselves. They are also educating their communities about the virus. They are taking lessons from the successful containment of EVD in Uganda and adapting them to their countries’ situations. They are also helping to control the spread of the disease through careful surveillance and contact tracing, good laboratory services, and safe and dignified burials. Go Home…

The Economic and Social Impact of Ebola

How Ebola Affects the World Ebola had a major impact on the economy of West Africa. It caused food shortages, weakened agricultural markets and disrupted trade and transport services. The first Ebola case outside of West Africa was reported in the United States when a man who had been in direct contact with an infected person died at a Dallas hospital. It caused widespread panic. Causes Ebola is caused by a virus that enters the body through direct contact with infected saliva or fluids, like blood, sweat, feces and vomit. The virus causes the immune system to attack healthy cells and kill them. This process can cause a number of serious illnesses including, but not limited to, fever, vomiting, diarrhea and death. Health workers were especially vulnerable to the disease because of their long, close contact with patients and their bodily fluids. They also faced a distrustful population, which made it hard to spread awareness and encourage people to seek care. The outbreak affected nearly every economic sector in the three hardest-hit countries. Many large companies closed or reduced operations, and migrant workers stopped traveling to the affected areas. This reduced production and increased food prices. Symptoms Ebola is primarily transmitted through human-to-human transmission. People can be contaminated by contact with the blood, sweat or saliva of infected individuals. The virus is also pathogenic in wild animals found in tropical rainforests such as fruit bats, and humans may be contaminated by touching the animal’s skin or eating its meat (bushmeat). Ebola symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, muscle pain, rash and red eyes. Patients may develop vomiting and diarrhoea, internal and external bleeding and shock. Between 25 and 90% of clinically ill cases are fatal. Ebola outbreaks disrupt the economies of affected countries through travel restrictions, reduced agricultural production and cross-border trade. They can also have social ramifications, especially in areas where schools are closed and large companies cut back on activities. Transmission Although the EVD outbreak in West Africa has now largely been contained, long-term economic recovery will be hampered by loss of incomes, decreased food consumption and a drop in production capacity. Mobile phone surveys show that a significant number of households have stopped work since the start of the epidemic, and that school attendance has dropped substantially. The large Ebola outbreak in 2014-16 was the most complex to date, and was spread within Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone through contact between people and fruit bats that are natural hosts for the virus. The virus was also transmitted across borders, and infections were reported in Senegal and Nigeria. The outbreak caused panic and led to travel restrictions, affecting trade in goods and services. This in turn reduced the production capacity of companies and reduced economic activity in the three affected countries. Treatment When an EVD outbreak occurs, it can have massive economic impacts. The West African outbreak in 2014 cost Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria an estimated $2 billion through slowed private investment, decreased agricultural production, reduced trade, and travel restrictions. The virus also disrupts services, including community health initiatives that help people prevent diseases. During the EVD epidemic in West Africa, service delivery was reduced by 50%. Lastly, the infection puts health care workers at risk; more than 870 health care workers became infected and died during the epidemic. In response to this, WHO and partners like ALIMA developed innovative Biosecure Emergency Care Units for Outbreaks, which are transparent safe individual ‘rooms’. They are now being used in Congo and other countries. These facilities are helping reduce rumors and fears, and allowing families to visit their sick loved ones. Prevention Ebola is primarily transmitted by direct contact with blood or body fluids of an infected person (living or dead). It cannot be contracted through air, nor can it spread through unprotected sexual transmission. Indirectly, an Ebola outbreak disrupts local economies by increasing transport costs due to travel restrictions and decreasing mining activity as workers are repatriated or leave the country to avoid the risk of infection. It also leads to a decrease in agricultural production and higher food prices for affected populations. Prevention strategies include educating the population about the importance of practicing safe hygiene, avoiding contact with reservoir species (such as forest antelopes, rodents and bats), and sensitizing people to take appropriate precautions during contact tracing and dignified burial practices. Early and culturally-relevant community engagement and mobilization are essential to support and reinforce these efforts. Go back to the starting page…

The Global Response to Ebola: Challenges and Solutions

The US Ebola Response Ebola is a complex crisis, upending the social fabric of affected countries. Treating it predominantly as a health emergency underplayed its wider implications. It also weakened already fragile health systems. The international community must continue its efforts to help Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone reach — and remain at — zero cases. Defining the Outbreak Identifying the number of illnesses and their distribution over time is essential to determining whether an outbreak is occurring. This requires establishing the expected rate of illness at a given time and location – known as a baseline level of disease. Outbreaks are identified when the numbers of illnesses exceed that level. Health care workers and people caring for sick relatives are at increased risk of infection because they come into direct contact with bodily fluids, such as saliva, urine, feces, vomit, sweat, semen, breast milk and blood. Proper use of personal protective equipment reduces this risk. Ebola is a dangerous virus that triggers a severe, often fatal, multi-system organ failure and leads to hemorrhagic fever and shock. It is transmitted through direct contact with body fluids and surfaces and can be spread by handling dead bodies or by eating bushmeat (e.g. monkeys, forest antelopes and rodents, as well as bats). The incubation period is usually between 2 and 21 days. Defining Needs and Requirements Our response to the Ebola outbreak required a rigorous and rapid needs assessment to identify desired results, gaps in current practice and barriers and facilitators to the development of solutions. The result is a set of measurable and credible goals for advancing preparedness in the at-risk countries, including vaccinations, expanding access to health services, ramping up community engagement and establishing contact tracing and treatment facilities. Health care workers must be able to work safely in the most challenging settings and with the highest risk patients. They need access to the right PPE, and be trained to use it properly, to follow standard protocols for infection control in high-risk settings. Countries must be able to reach—and stay at—zero cases, which will require sustained, comprehensive action by all of the stakeholders. This requires a global partnership that involves governments, international organizations, bilateral donors, private sector partners and non-traditional actors. It will also require commitment to long-term funding streams that mitigate and respond to recurrent outbreaks. Defining the Role of the United States The United States continues to play a key role in response to the Ebola crisis. The US military is providing logistics expertise and personnel to support the delivery of supplies to affected countries. In addition, the US Navy has sent a ship with staff and equipment to transport patients from Liberia to Uganda for treatment. Local health departments are working with state and federal counterparts to ensure that individuals at risk for Ebola are monitored according to CDC guidance and symptomatic individuals are isolated and transported to an appropriate medical facility. They are also working to develop relationships with airports and other transportation providers to enhance readiness to screen incoming travelers. NLM provides a single, up-to-date source of information for responders to public health emergencies and disasters through its Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC). DIMRC monitors a wide variety of sources of information and creates a Web guide to the most prominent ones, including the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Defining the Role of the International Community In this time of crisis, it is important for the international community to continue its support to West Africa as it works to contain the outbreak and cope with its impacts. We need to help these countries strengthen their health systems and learn lessons so that they can better prepare for future epidemics. Communities must be involved at the outset, and not viewed as victims, so that they take ownership of the response, monitor their contacts and actively search for those who have dropped out of sight. Communities can become a formidable force against Ebola, but only when they are engaged. GOARN members, including MSF staff, expressed a desire for WHO to lead the response more forcefully as it has the experience, seasoned senior staff, constitutional mandate and country presence to do so. Similarly, we need to avoid creating new mechanisms and focus on scaling-up existing ones. This includes re-engaging WHO, strengthening infection prevention and control practices, and building capacity for contact tracing and monitoring. Circle back to the home page…

Witnessing the NBA’s global legacy through nba중계: A gateway to the game and a shared communal experience.

The NBA is where amazing happens. Where giants roam the court, and the squeak of sneakers and the swish of nets fill the air. For fans around the globe, keeping up with these titans of the hardwood is essential, and that’s where NBA broadcasts, or **nba중계** in the local tongue, step up to the plate. Imagine settling into your favorite chair, the lights dimmed, snacks at the ready, and the anticipation of the jump ball hanging palpably in the room. You click the remote, and there you are, courtside, courtesy of an **nba중계**. The beauty of these broadcasts is not just in the presentation of the live events but in the seamless integration of replay angles, player stats, and expert commentary that enriches the viewing experience. You might ask yourself, what makes an NBA game more than just a mere sports broadcast? It is the human endeavor on display, the battle of wills and skills, and the narrative that unfolds with every game. It’s about witnessing the underdog rise, the champions defend, and records being shattered. That’s why an NBA broadcast is not just a window to a game; it’s a gateway to stories of perseverance, teamwork, and excellence. Beyond the thrill of the game, NBA broadcasts are a shared communal experience. They blur borders and foster a sense of belonging amongst fans who may never meet but share a common love for the game. In a poetic sense, each game is a verse in the grand ballad of basketball, narrated live through your screen. As fans, there’s an unspoken bond with the players we wear on our jerseys and whose posters adorn our walls. NBA broadcasts transform these figures from distant heroes into familiar faces that grace our homes with regularity. Their triumphs are our celebrations; their defeats, our call to loyalty. In conclusion, the heart of the NBA’s charm lies in its ability to bring us the game wherever we are, in the most vibrant fidelity. Through **nba중계**, fans are more than spectators; they’re part of the global NBA family, witnesses to an ongoing legacy of sportsmanship and flair. With every dribble, dunk, and daring three-pointer, we’re reminded that basketball is not just a game, it’s a way of life. **FAQs** Q1: What is an NBA broadcast in Korean? A1: An NBA broadcast in Korean is called “nba중계.” Q2: Why are NBA broadcasts so popular worldwide? A2: NBA broadcasts are popular because they connect fans globally to the excitement of basketball, featuring high-quality production and engaging narratives of the sport. Q3: How do NBA broadcasts enhance fan experience? A3: NBA broadcasts enhance the fan experience with live commentary, instant replays, player statistics, and expert analyses, creating an immersive viewing experience. Q4: Can I watch NBA games online in high definition? A4: Yes, NBA games can be streamed online in high definition from various official broadcasting platforms and services. Q5: Are there any interactive elements in NBA broadcasts? A5: Some NBA broadcasts include interactive elements like live chats, social media integration, and second-screen experiences that enrich the overall viewer engagement.…

Nigeria’s Swift Ebola Response Stops Epidemic

Nigeria’s Ebola Response Credited With Stopping the EVD Epidemic Nigeria’s swift and effective response to the Ebola outbreak has been credited with helping to contain the disease. Key factors include enforcing coordination using proven structures, seeding the Ebola EOC with personnel from the national polio EOC, and conducting contact tracing through existing health systems. Despite this, the outbreak did have economic ripple effects. These are highlighted in the results of a consumer survey complemented by semistructured interviews with business operators. Symptoms When Sawyer flew into Lagos on July 20, he brought Ebola with him. His arrival triggered the start of Nigeria’s national emergency response. The Ebola outbreak was the first time Nigeria’s new Emergency Operations Center (EOC) used a system of incident management that had been developed to respond to infectious disease emergencies. This system is credited with helping contain the outbreak early. Ebola contact tracers were trained to travel in teams, visiting houses within radii around homes of Ebola contacts. They were also given GPS devices so they could track the movements of their Ebola contacts and quickly find them if needed. It was a hard job. Two people were needed to draw blood, and even slight pressure from a needle can cause bleeding in someone with hemorrhagic fever. Diagnosis When Ebola first appeared in Lagos in 2014, it was a crisis with global implications. The international community rallied around Nigeria with support, expertise and resources. Teams from Medecins Sans Frontieres, the United States CDC and others were brought into the country to support local efforts. Nigeria’s Ebola response was a model of coordination. Its government quickly established an Emergency Operations Center (EOC), a hub that aggregated all information related to the outbreak. EOCs were critical in keeping medical staff informed and coordinated. In addition, they also helped reduce business costs such as rescheduled meetings and lost opportunities. Many interviewees cited a shift in consumption habits due to fear-based aversion behaviour and misinformation about the disease. However, the EOCs were not without their challenges. Transmission On what seemed to be a routine Monday morning in July 2014, physician Dr. Ameyo Stella Adadevoh began her ward round at First Consultants Medical Centre in Lagos, Nigeria. She spotted a patient who had just flown into the country from Liberia. Based on his symptoms and his travel history, she suspected Ebola. A few days later, his blood sample tested positive for the virus. He died on July 24. Nigeria’s leadership and aggressive response ensured that the outbreak did not explode into a full-scale epidemic. It included a national emergency operations center supported by WHO and a world-class virology laboratory at Lagos University Teaching Hospital. The team developed a staffing plan and deployed community-based surveillance. They also partnered with the media, including local small-town announcers and ‘Nollywood’ movie makers to spread public health messages. Treatment Despite calls for criminalization, forced quarantine and suspension of international air travel, Nigeria’s Ebola response teams focused on building trust through face-to-face contacts, constant media education and daily national briefings. They also enlisted small town announcers and the talents of ‘Nollywood’ movie stars to deliver messages. Dr. Adadevoh’s resistance to outside pressure to release Sawyer was the major factor that allowed her to confine the outbreak mainly to First Consultants Medical Centre. As a result, she is widely considered the person most responsible for saving the rest of Nigeria from a cataclysmic Ebola nightmare. Her efforts were met with spontaneous mourning by the media and households across the country. In contrast, her husband’s death was treated much more coldly. Two weeks after Sawyer’s death, Igonoh developed a fever. She suspected it was malaria, which is common among the people of Nigeria’s tropics. She self-treated with oral rehydration therapy and bananas. Prevention In the face of a global emergency, Nigeria stepped up to the challenge. Its vigorous and rapid public health response is credited with stopping the EVD epidemic and making Africa’s most populous country Ebola-free. On a normal day in July 2014, Dr Ameyo Stella Adadevoh, who worked at Mainland Hospital in Lagos, spotted an ill patient flying into the city from Liberia. Her clinical diagnosis of malaria was wrong, and the patient ended up being Nigeria’s first laboratory-confirmed EVD case. In the days that followed, Lagos state’s public health officials rapidly identified and monitored people who had come into contact with the patient. The swift and robust implementation of these public health measures prevented EVD from spreading across the country, as it did in the ill-prepared countries of Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Go Home…

The Ultimate Platform for International Football.

해외축구중계: The Ultimate Portal for International Football Are you a massive football fan? Do you feel the adrenaline rush each time your favorite team steps on the pitch? As fans, we crave to witness these exciting matches. However, being far from the action, it’s challenging to follow the games of international football. Say hello to 해외축구중계! Exploring 해외축구중계 해외축구중계 is a phenomenal platform dedicated to all football enthusiasts worldwide. Think about it as your digital ticket to any stadium, any team, anywhere in the world. Spatial confines won’t matter at all when you’ve got an all-access pass via . Live action, highlights, updates, insights – they have it all! Beyond Live Broadcasts There’s more to 해외축구중계 than live broadcasts. Dunn’s comprehensive platform not only offers live streaming of matches but also provides inside scoops, match highlights, team analyses, and player rankings. It’s like walking the corridors of every football club you can imagine! Anywhere, Anytime Football With 해외축구중계, you don’t need to worry about missing out on any of the heart-thumping action. Whether you’re at work, on the road, or chilling in the comfort of your home, you can catch every dribble, every goal, every save – in real-time with 해외축구중계. Conclusion With 해외축구중계, following international football has never been easier. From live match broadcasts to insightful football content, they provide an all-encompassing football experience that keeps you in touch with the sport you love, breaking all barriers of time and place. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) 1. Q: Can 해외축구중계 provide information on all football leagues worldwide? A: Yes, 해외축구중계 covers all major international football leagues. 2. Q: How reliable is the 해외축구중계 live feed? A: 해외축구중계 is deeply committed to providing reliable live feeds with minimal to zero interruptions. 3. Q: Does 해외축구중계 require any subscription fees? A: Some content may be accessed without a subscription, but a premium access yields a broader range of features. 4. Q: Is 해외축구중계 available on mobile devices? A: Absolutely, 해외축구중계 can be accessed through any internet-connected device. 5. Q: Can 해외축구중계 ensure the quality of its content and services? A: 해외축구중계 prides itself on the quality of its content, ensuring that users get top-tier football content.…

Ebola Outbreak in Africa: Challenges and Control Measures

Recent Ebola Outbreak in Africa The current outbreak in DRC began with a girl who visited a health center with fever, headache and physical weakness. She was admitted and treated for malaria. To control a disease outbreak, strong local health systems are essential. Uganda has trained health care workers and established a community network of volunteer Village Health Team members. Background A deadly outbreak of Ebola virus swept through West Africa in 2014, killing more than 11,300 people. The disease is a severe, often fatal illness that results from direct contact with blood or secretions from an infected person or animal. During the Ebola epidemic, many countries in the region experienced damaged public health systems. This made it difficult to detect and respond quickly to the outbreak. Cultural beliefs and practices also contributed to the spread of the disease. For example, some people rushed to help sick patients without wearing protective gear. Others followed traditional funeral and burial practices that put family members in contact with the body, possibly spreading the virus. This is why a comprehensive approach to outbreak control is necessary: vaccinations, infection prevention and control practices, contact tracing, laboratory services and social mobilization. Cases Since 1976, 34 outbreaks have occurred in 11 African countries. Most of these outbreaks involved the Zaire strain of Ebola virus, which can be spread from person to person through close contact. The most recent outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) was triggered by the death of a girl in North Kivu and Ituri provinces on September 5, 2021. The girl died after being admitted to a local health center with fever and weakness. The outbreak was complicated by the fact that contacts of this girl’s family were largely unidentified and not followed up properly. This led to accumulating chains of transmission that were difficult to trace. In addition, the country’s quarter-century-old conflict slowed efforts to contain the disease. In spite of these challenges, this outbreak was brought under control within just 70 days. Symptoms The disease is spread through direct contact with blood or body fluids (such as urine, feces, saliva, sweat, and semen) of someone who has the illness. People can also be infected through touching objects that have come into contact with a sick person’s blood or body fluids, including clothes, bedding and medical equipment. Health-care workers are often infected during the care of Ebola patients, especially when infection control measures are not strictly followed. Survivors of the disease can also infect others by sexual transmission or through breast milk. The outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo is complicated by damaged public health systems and high population mobility. In addition, the country is a major transit point for travellers to and from Africa and U.S.-bound travellers undergo extensive screening at five airports to ensure they do not bring the disease home. Treatment With vaccines available and an adequate supply of other medical tools to treat Ebola patients, limiting outbreaks is possible. However, the high rate of human-to-human transmission, a lack of healthcare infrastructure and the fact that people easily cross borders in West Africa make containment difficult. Besides health interventions, communities must also understand and accept messages about treatment. Beliefs and myths about the disease impede acceptance of public health messages; for example, some communities believe that hospitalization means death. To address these challenges, the Uganda government has set up district outbreak response teams whose members are elected local leaders with a mandate from the affected communities. These committees are supported by onsite technical officers from the national taskforce. Additionally, the country has rolled out a network of community health workers called Village Health Teams (VHTs) to support implementation of public health interventions in the affected areas. Prevention Vaccination, enhanced personal hygiene and improved health care delivery are key. Local capacity to monitor and report cases needs to be built up. And communication is crucial: all political, religious and cultural leaders should pass on messages about Ebola prevention to their followers. In the future, it’s important to stop outbreaks before they spread out of control. Restricting travel may feel like a protective measure, but it can actually backfire by hampering the ability to identify and respond effectively. Deforestation across Africa’s tropics is also making it more difficult to identify animal reservoirs of the virus. This could make it easier for the disease to move from isolated areas into urban centers. And high rates of migration in the region create a constant challenge for authorities to contain health threats. Circle back to the home page…

The Ultimate Guide to Becoming a Successful 재테크 총판

Unveiling the Mysteries of 재테크 총판 Isn’t the world of 재테크 총판 fascinating? From sunrise to sunset, this topic tends to captivate, engage, and intrigue the masses. But before going into the depths, let’s clarify what 재테크 총판 implies. This term, which arises from the Korean language, principally refers to financial management and dealership. It stands for a grand scheme of being a distributor in diverse businesses and financial management, particularly in favor of individual profitability. Indeed, it’s an excellent road towards a financially secure and affluent life. But is the journey towards becoming a 재테크 총판 straightforward? Let’s dig in. Establishing a Profitable 재테크 총판 Business Isn’t starting a business always daunting? Particularly when it comes to being a 재테크 총판, it might seem frightening at first, but it doesn’t have to be. The keys to success here include adequate research, careful planning, and an insightful understanding of the market landscape. A does not need giant start-up capital or a luxurious office on the skyscraper. Rather, the business model primarily focuses on providing services, promoting products, or enhancing sales of third-party entities. It’s about creating a financial structure that’s profitable, sustainable, and efficient. Benefits of venturing into 재테크 총판 What would you think if I told you that being a 재테크 총판 could reward you with amazing benefits? These include flexibility as you can work from anywhere, ability to earn a substantial income, and gaining vast exposure in diverse market areas and industries. Being a 재테크 총판 could indeed set the foundation for incredible financial growth and stability. Now you may wonder – there may be challenges involved too, right? True. Nothing worthwhile comes easy. But one can overcome such hurdles with persistence, hard work, and smart planning. Conclusion Overall, stepping into the world of 재테크 총판 can be an exciting, rewarding journey. It doesn’t merely represent a profitable business alternative but also signifies an opportunity to learn, grow, and possibly transform one’s financial blueprint. The prospect might seem challenging initially, but with adequate guidance, it is sure to be a gratifying venture. Frequently Asked Questions 1. What is 재테크 총판? In simple terms, 재테크 총판 is a business model that centers around distribution and financial management for individual profitability. 2. How can I start a 재테크 총판 business? Starting a 재테크 총판 business involves careful market research, meticulous planning, and measures to enhance the efficacy of your services. 3. What are the benefits of being a 재테크 총판? Being a 재테크 총판 can offer tremendous benefits such as flexibility, potential for high earnings, and exposure to various market segments. 4. Are there any challenges that a 재테크 총판 might face? Like any business, being a 재테크 총판 may present challenges. However, with persistence, hard work, and a strategic approach, these can be overcome. 5. How can 재테크 총판 contribute to my financial growth? Being a 재테크 총판 can lead to substantial financial growth by offering an efficient and profitable business structure.…

Containing Ebola in Nigeria: Lessons Learned and Recommendations

Nigeria’s Response to the Ebola Outbreak When Nigeria’s first Ebola case, Sawyer, was confirmed in Lagos on July 23, it shocked public health communities around the world. In a city like Lagos, where the population swells and ebbs daily, contact tracing seemed impossible. But Nigeria’s rapid response prevented an explosion of cases, and world-class epidemiological detective work linked every case to direct or indirect contact with the index patient. What Happened? The Ebola outbreak has impacted many lives, communities and systems in West Africa. Nigeria was able to contain the disease swiftly and was declared free of Ebola by the World Heath Organization in October 2014. The rapid response by public health officials and the government was aided by an extensive social mobilization strategy that included teams conducting face-to-face visits within specific radii around suspected cases, using RT-PCR testing on two blood samples taken at least 48 hours apart to confirm symptom development (Ebola Virus Disease; EVD) and identifying contacts. These contacts were then followed with a 21-day follow up unless they became laboratory confirmed cases of EVD or died. The impact of the Ebola crisis on the economy was significant and broad based across sectors. Many companies reported loss of revenue, increased operating costs and missed business opportunities as a result of meetings being rescheduled and employees avoiding travel to Nigeria out of fear. Health care providers suffered a particularly heavy financial burden due to reduced patient volume. What We Learned One of the reasons Nigeria was able to contain the outbreak so quickly is that it took advantage of existing infrastructure. Health officials had a database of health care workers that could be called upon to identify new cases and track contacts, and this was used. When the index patient died, experts were able to generate a list of 898 potential contacts. This shows how important it is for authorities to be vigilant, especially because of the long incubation period. However, Nigeria also suffered from fear-based aversion behaviour from both HCWs and health care seekers. Consequently, hospitals experienced reduced utilization and revenue. This was a major challenge for the health sector. While previous studies have looked at the direct impact of Ebola on health sector, this paper is unique in capturing the downstream economic effects that could not be measured with traditional quantitative methods. The paper also highlights the importance of addressing these indirect impacts. Recommendations The Ebola outbreak in Nigeria was largely contained by rapid implementation of public health measures. These included isolation, contact tracing and monitoring of contacts, quarantine and ring vaccination. Health officials and other stakeholders should continue to strengthen the systems they have in place to respond to public health emergencies, including through capacity building and training. This should include a focus on epidemiology and One Health, a key element of which is using digital data rather than paper records that can be easily lost or destroyed. The rapid deployment of the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) was a key factor in curbing the spread of the outbreak. In addition, seeding the Ebola EOC with staff from the National Polio EOC was a crucial step to demonstrating both national and state commitment to the response. This is a model other African countries should consider adapting to their local contexts. This would help to speed up the implementation of a robust response to future public health threats, including EVD. Conclusions The Ebola outbreak in Nigeria provided a rare opportunity to test a wide range of public health and private sector responses to an epidemic. The Nigerian government acted swiftly and coordinated the response using existing structures adapted from its polio eradication experience. It also established a clear political priority and established a political leader accountable for the response, alongside technical managers who were accountable to national task forces and the President. Despite the success of these efforts, many challenges remain. A number of these could be addressed through enhanced preparedness planning for future public health emergencies. Return to the home screen…

Ebola: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Ebola Respiratory Disease Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a serious illness that can kill people. The virus is most often spread when a person without proper protective gear touches contaminated blood or body fluids, such as spit, sweat, feces, vomit, and semen. It can also be spread through contact with objects contaminated with these fluids or through broken skin, such as a cut, scratch, or scrape. Symptoms The first symptoms of Ebola can be flu-like, and include fever, aches and pains, extreme tiredness, diarrhea, vomiting and stomach pain. Some patients have hemorrhage (including internal bleeding), a rash, red eyes and difficulty breathing or swallowing. Death usually occurs when the disease progresses to severe complications such as shock and massive blood loss. Doctors diagnose Ebola by asking about your health history and when you might have been exposed to the virus. They will also do blood tests and a swab of your saliva. A stick with a cotton tip is wiped inside your mouth to test for viruses and bacteria. Ebola spreads through direct contact with the blood or bodily fluids of an infected person, their dead bodies or surfaces and materials contaminated with those fluids. Health care workers (HCW) who treat infected people are at high risk for infection. They wear caps covering their heads, masks shielding their faces and gowns, gloves and eye protection to prevent exposure. They are often isolated in hospitals and cared for in intensive care units. Diagnosis Ebola is a severe and often deadly disease caused by infection with the Ebola virus. It is spread by direct contact with blood or body fluids from a person who has EVD or who has died of EVD. It also can be spread through contact with objects (such as needles) that are contaminated with infected blood or body fluids. The virus does not spread through the air, like the flu. EVD can be diagnosed with a simple blood test and a stool or fecal culture. People who have EVD are placed in isolation to keep them from spreading the virus. A vaccine is available that can help prevent EVD in people who are 18 years of age and older. To avoid getting EVD, do not go to areas or countries where outbreaks have occurred. Practice good hygiene and do not touch wild animals (such as monkeys, forest antelopes, and porcupines) or their dead bodies. It is important to avoid close contact with bats (including those in caves). Vaccines against the Zaire, Bundibugyo, and Reston strains of Ebola virus have been developed. Treatment There are few medicines that can treat EVD, but early supportive care may improve survival. It includes hydration and medicine to control symptoms, such as fever, diarrhea and vomiting. Blood tests can help diagnose Ebola, but it takes several days for the virus to reach levels that lab tests can detect. A positive test means the person has Ebola and should be isolated. In the PALM trial (Pamoja Tulinde Maisha, which in Kiswahili means “Together We Save Lives”), two monoclonal antibody treatments were shown to drastically reduce death rates in EVD cases. The FDA approved the first treatment, called Inmazeb, in October 2020. Men who survive Ebola can spread the virus through their sperm for up to 3 months. To prevent this, they should not have sex, including oral sex, until their semen has tested negative twice. The virus can also stay in other body fluids, such as breast milk, amniotic fluid and spinal fluid. Prevention Ebola spreads through direct contact with blood or body fluids (including urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk and semen) of an infected person or animal, either alive or dead. It can also enter the body through breaks in the skin, including cuts or abrasions. Once in the body, Ebola causes severe, often fatal illness. It triggers a massive immune response that damages multiple organ systems, and if untreated, can cause death within days of the onset of symptoms. There is no vaccine to prevent Ebola, but the virus can be stopped in its tracks by stopping an outbreak where it starts. This requires strong support for countries affected, enabling them to identify and respond quickly to an outbreak. Healthcare workers are at risk for Ebola, but they can protect themselves and others by following standard infection prevention and control precautions. They should use personal protective equipment and wash their hands regularly. They should also avoid close contact with sick family members and avoid using contaminated materials, such as clothes and bedding. Return to the start…